Ther. Prop. of Mat.
Elements of probability theory, Bernoulli, Poisson and Gaussian probability distributions. Random walk and diffusion. Thermal motion, molecular distribution of energy in crystals and gases, definition of temperature and the Boltzmann factor, statistical characterization of thermal equilibrium, entropy. Entropy and heat: second law of thermodynamics. Entropy of mixing. Open systems and free energy minimum principles. Applications of the equilibrium conditions: the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, Raoult’s law, Henry’s law, Osmotic pressure. Ideal gases with internal degrees of freedom. Third law of thermodynamics.